Volume 5 (2014). Issue 2


Free Will and Retribution Today

Mario De Caro & Massimo Marraffa

The paper addresses two issues that have been recently debated in the literature on free will, moral responsibility, and the theory of punishment. The first issue concerns the descriptive project, the second both the substantive and the prescriptive project. On theoretical, historical and empirical grounds, we claim that there is no rationale for fearing that the spread of neurocognitive findings will undermine the ordinary practice of responsibility attributions. more »

Pragnienie i zamiar: przyczynek do dystynkcji pojęć

Gerhard Seel

To answer the title question there has been initially introduced the elements of the Aristotle theory in order to confront it with the concepts of the linguistic paradigm philosophers. Finally, the author proposes a very own solution to this dilemma. Accordingly to the methodology of the linguistic paradigm, the paper brings about an analyse of the linguistic expressions to investigate whether they provide a sufficient premise to distinguish between desires and intentions. more »

ΜΕΤΡΟΝ, ΜΕΤΡΙΟΝ, ΜΕΤΡΙΟΤΗΣ. Greek Concepts of Measure

Aleksandra Mathiesen

Submitted article presents a variety of the concept of measure in the early Greek investigations of nature, development of ethical and political structures, fundamental norms of the arts and crafts, and conclusively, searches for understanding of the ἄνθρωπος μέτρον challenge. Among the crucial notions of the early Greek investigations, measure was one of the most receptive: from speculative inquiries to ethical considerations, from theoretical constructions to methodological directives, from normative arrangements to technical solutions. more »

Rekonstruktion der biographischen Genese einer Bewährungsfigur – Ein Beitrag zu einem sozialisationstheoretischen Begriff der Bewährung

Boris Zizek

Ziel des vorliegenden Beitrags ist es, exemplarisch die biographische Genese einer Bewährungsfigur zu rekonstruieren und auf diesem Wege zur weiteren Differenzierung dieses sozialisationstheoretischen Begriffs beizutragen. Bewährungsfiguren erweisen sich in der exemplarischen Interviewanalyse als lebensgeschichtlich erste Selbstkonturierungen, die im Verlauf des Lebens eine sukzessive Sättigung, modifizierende Ausgestaltung und eine mehr oder weniger gelungene, komplexitätserhöhende Transferierung auf neue Felder der Bewährung erfahren. more »

Armut und Autobiographie – Versuch einer Begriffsanalyse

Małgorzata Bogaczyk-Vormayr

This short working paper is my first attempt to present my concept analysis of relation between the poverty experiences—e.g., childhood suffering by war and migration background, daily life suffering by starvation, abuse, racism etc.—and the process of self-understanding and resilience with the help of an oral history or literature (non-fiction as much as fiction novels). more »

Art brut oder die Überwindung der Biomacht

Małgorzata Bogaczyk-Vormayr

In this comprehensive paper, I present the thesis that the clinical biopower—which means biopouvoir according to Michel Foucault—can be countered with the help of artistic ability. In this sense, the psychiatric clinic may turn into a space of inclusion, respect, and true self-unfolding. Following Jean Dubuffet, I give a definition of art brut and analyze some works of German and Austrian outsiders of the 20th century, who succeeded in overcoming life-crises, such as childhood poverty, experiences of war, psychical illness, or social ostracism. more »

Transhumanism and Evolution. Considerations on Darwin, Lamarck and Transhumanism

Filip Bardziński

In the paper, I discuss the possible gap between the transhumanist perspective of controlling and perfecting human evolution through scientific means and the Darwinian and neo-Darwinian theory of biological evolution. I argue that, due to such gap, the transhumanist programme is flawed and requires a new and better understanding of biological mechanisms in order to attain its goals. more »

Choroba psychiczna – cierpienie, które zmieniło prawo

Błażej Kmieciak

Throughout history, patients of psychiatric institutions were often treated improperly. These individuals were isolated, humiliated and excluded. On the other hand treatment frequently contravenes the subjective/agent- relative positions and rights of people with mental disorders in implementing so-called positive changes. The perception of improper handling of cited group of patients sometimes constituted the beginning stage of the activities, aimed at taking responsible care of people with schizophrenia or depression. That concern also has a unique character, involving the necessity to continue to take coercive action against the patient. more »

Characterizing Ethical Decision-Making and Its Influences — Examining Higher Education Leaders in Poland

Tara Shollenberger

A review of literature revealed that cross-cultural research had not addressed the topic of ethical decision-making definitions (EDM), environmental factors and EDM models all of which could influence ethical decision-making especially within higher education. The present research study examined ethical decision-making, specifically how it was defined and its process. Then environmental factors were identified by experts as being influential to the process of EDM within higher education in Poland. The research provided focuses mainly on EDM and cultural aspects as related to Poland and higher education. more »

Basic Income, Eco-logical Ethics, and Interdependent Well-Being

Aiden Sisler

A Basic Income (universal basic income or citizen’s income) could contribute to the means for living a dignified ecologically- and socially-aligned life characterized by well-being, freedom, and equality. After laying out key definitions, I reflect on moral and ethical issues regarding Basic Income’s implementation, backed by supportive theory and evidence. These arguments organise around interdependence in eco-social systems and core requirements of ontogenesis as well as the intersection and intertwining of socio-cultural, political, and economic factors, known as socio-ecological determinants of global health and well-being. more »

Humans as “Part and Parcel of Nature”: Thoreau’s Contribution to Environmental Ethics

Jason P. Matzke

Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862) develops an understanding of human beings as “part and parcel of nature” that includes the idea that we are physically, spiritually, and attitudinally (more or less) connected to the world around us. The image he offers is one in which life spent too much in civilization, where work and social expectations determine the quality of one’s daily life and personal character, lead to lives of boredom, conformity, and misplaced priorities. Time spent in more natural environments is the antidote. Such experiences have the potential to jar us out of the conformist and—to his mind—personally stunting existence into which most fall. more »

Misrecognized Violence against Women and Perpetrated by Women. Seeking Remedies

Joanna Dutka

This paper explores the misrecognition of women’s experience with violence in order to understand better what kinds of approaches to the problem would make it possible to design successful strategies for the prevention of violence. Violence itself, as well as common misconceptions regarding its mechanisms, carries ramifications that go far beyond direct and physical injury. The prevalence of violence and lack of social awareness regarding its mechanisms result in limitations to the social participation of many individuals and groups. more »

Norma podstawowa w Czystej Teorii Prawa Hansa Kelsena

Marta Zuzanna Huk

The aim of following paper is to indicate that the notion of Grundnorm, described by Hans Kelsen in second edition of his Pure Theory of Law (Kelsen, 1960), is in fact a necessity in every construction of normative order – understood as a coercive design. I attempt to prove this point by explaining how Kelsen as the founder of legal normativism is making a clear distinction between effectiveness and validity of basic norm, in context of existing legal order. more »


Hans Jonas and Vasily Grossman: Reflections on the Human Condition after Auschwitz

Roberto Franzini Tibaldeo

The article endeavours to compare the reflections on the Shoah of two of the most celebrated intellectuals of Jewish origin of the 20th century, namely the German philosopher Hans Jonas (1903-1993) and the Soviet writer Vasily Grossman (1905-1964). Both Jonas’ essay on The Concept of God after Auschwitz (1987) and Grossman’s novels and reports, such as The Hell of Treblinka (1944), Life and Fate (1980), and The Sistine Madonna (1989), are characterised by a thorough enquiry into the ambivalence of the human condition, that tries to shed some light on the disturbing abyss of Auschwitz and the Shoah. more »

The Culture of Memory: The Approach of Reyes Mate

Katarzyna Gan-Krzywoszyńska & Piotr Leśniewski

The aim of the article is to present Reyes Mate’s project for a culture of memory. Western culture/tradition tends to erase and blur the traces of crimes (even genocides) in order to achieve/restore peace; however, at the same time, this leads to ignoring the victim’s suffering and, in consequence, helps the wrongdoer. Following Reyes Mate, we argue that a memory of past injustices must constitute an integral part of the present and is the only means to prevent the hermeneutic death of victims. Any project for justice must put victims at the center of reflection. Memory is the beginning of the process that leads to reconciliation, for it makes it possible to redress both the victim and society. more »

Ku redefinicji ludobójstwa: realia lokalne

Dennis Klein

Looking at local circumstances such as a neighborhood compels a reformulation of genocide. Their exposure of the incremental escalation of assault makes clear that intention, though a necessary condition of genocide, isn’t always a sufficient one, eroding the orthodox definition of genocide itself which too evolves. more »

Wizerunek średniowiecznego Żyda

Anna Jaroszewska

Medieval Jews were perceived by their neighbors in two ways. On the one hand, as an integral part of the community, living among Christians, leading business or cooperating intellectually with them. Jewish philosophers were known and respected by Christian thinkers, like the Jewish medics – prized for centuries for their extensive knowledge and skills. On the other hand, the medieval Jew is a clever merchant, cunning moneylender that is gathering his fortune, follower a foreign religion – full of incomprehensible mysterious rituals. more »

Geschichtsbewusstsein und Zeitzeugnis. Nietzsches Genealogie als Anregung zum philosophischen Dialog mit Kindern

Eva Marsal, Takara Dobashi

The paper confronts the reader with Nietzchean critical approach to history, truth, life, and education. Far away from progressive-euphoric ideologies of 19th, the authors consider the following questions: How children live historical occurences when being tought in classrooms (for example in Italy, Japan, etc.), how can we strengthen their ability for reflected relations to history as well as for interconnecting between past, present, and future life? more »

Czym jest Zagłada dla historyka?

Bogumił Rudawski

In diesem Beitrag wird nach der Bedeutung der Judenvernichtung in den Kategorien des Genozid für einen Historiker gefragt. Um die Komplexität dieser Problematik zu zeigen, werden drei Schwerpunkte erörtert. Ausgangspunkt ist die theoretische Auffassung des Begriffes Völkermord mit besonderer Rücksicht auf die Konzeption Raphael Lemkins. Dann wird ein Problem der Historisierung des Holocaust und Bedeutung dieses Prozesses für die Geschichtsschreibung und kollektives Gedächtnis besprochen. more »


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